Botswana has dropped one place in the latest Human Development Index (HDI) rankings of the United Nations Development Programme.
Between 2005 and 2010, Botswana’s adult literacy rate for people aged 15 and older was 84.5 percent; in 2010 the percent of the population aged 25 and older with at least secondary education was 75.5 percent; the gross enrolment ratio for secondary school in 2010 between 2002 and 2011 was 80 percent and 7.4 percent for tertiary education institutions for the same period;┬á 97.4 percent of primary school teachers between 2005 and 2011 were trained to teach; in 2011, 66.4 percent of the population expressed satisfaction with the quality of education; and between 2002 and 2011, the primary school drop-out rate was 13.2 percent. Scores for performance in reading, mathematics and science were not provided but under the Innovation and Technology indicator, between 2005 and 2010, Botswana’s expenditure on research and development in GDP terms was 0.5 percent. Graduates in science and engineering constituted 13 percent of the total graduating between 2002 and 2011.
Under the Social Integration indicator, 73.8 percent of the population that is 25 years and older was employed in 2011; between 2001 and 2010, the percentage for child labour for children between five and 14 years was 9.0; whereas 0 represented ‘least satisfied’ and 10 represented ‘most satisfied’, overall satisfaction with life in Botswana was 3.6 between 2007 and 2011 and in the same period, 45.9 percent of employees expressed satisfaction with their jobs while 74 percent said they trusted the national government. At 14.5 percent per 100┬á000 people, Botswana’s homicide rate between 2004 and 2011 was higher than that of Egypt, Philippines, Syria, Indonesia, Vietnam, Nicaragua and Morocco.
The report defines child labour as children aged between 5 and 11 who, during the reference week, did at least one hour of economic activity or at least 28 hours of household chores, or children aged between 12 and 14 who, during the reference week, did at least 14 hours of economic activity or at least 28 hours of household chores. Regarding the International Capital Flows and Immigration indicator, which measures financial flows and human mobility, Botswana’s foreign direct investment net inflows between 2007 and 2011 constituted 1.8 percent of GDP and for the same period, private capital inflows in the same period as a percentage of GDP were at 4.6.
In 2010, 3.2 percent of the population left the country with the intention to remain abroad for a year and in the same year, the number of migrants living in the country was equivalent to 5.8 percent of Botswana’s own population. In 2010 the country received 2.1 million international inbound tourists who are defined as “arrivals of non-resident visitors (overnight visitors, tourists, same-day visitors, excursionists) at national borders.”
In 2009, 45.4 percent of the population had access to electricity sold commercially (both on-grid and off-grid) and self-generated; between 2002 and 2009, 6.1 in 100 people in Botswana owned a personal computer and 6 in 100 had Internet access in 2010.
The HDI is a composite measure of indicators that focus on life expectancy, educational attainment and command over the resources needed for a decent living. All told, 187 countries were surveyed and Botswana, which is ranked 119 in this year’s report, is in the Medium Human Development category.
The report is themed “The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World” which is an acknowledgement of the economic importance that countries in that part of the world are assuming. It notes that China has overtaken Japan as the world’s second biggest economy, that India is reshaping its future with new entrepreneurial creativity and social policy innovation and that Brazil is raising its living standards by expanding international relationships and anti-poverty programmes that are being emulated worldwide. The report names Ghana and South Africa as the star performers in Africa.